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Sunday, 13 July 2003

Venus, Mars and Usability

The Sunday Times' Doors section has a lead article today on What Women Want, and the answer is that they want stuff that actually works, as opposed to stuff that's flashy and complicated. Fair enough. User interfaces these days have a ways to go, you're not going to find me disagreeing there. But statements like:

Take Microsoft’s Word, which is "overwrought" and "overcomplex", according to Jane Austin, one of three women who run a digital design company called Recollective in London. "It has huge amounts of extra stuff, as though someone thought, I can do this, so I’m going to do it, instead of thinking, why should I do this?"

do bear examining. I'm not questioning the fact that Microsoft Word's interface could do with tidying up. At least Microsoft appears to be attempting to do something about it, with Office 2000 onwards utilising dynamic menus that default to showing you your most recently used tasks. Whether this is strictly a good idea or not is debatable, since the onus is then moved on to the user understanding that not everything in the menu is in the menu whenever something more complicated is attempted. Then there's the task panes--that I've never used--but are geared toward comman tasks that people perform while editing a document.

The "it has huge amounts of extra stuff" point is worth looking at, chiefly because the problem is this: some people do use those huge amounts of extra stuff, and there's a chance that you might too, someday, even if you think you're never going to. The problem with this creeping featurism hiding these advanced features from more novice users until they're needed--see the attempted solution above for one method of dealing with this.

On the other hand, it's perfectly possible that a large proportion of people really are using the wrong tool for the job. If you're writing a simple letter, is there any need to be using such a featured word processor? Is this Microsoft's fault for marketing Word as a be-all and end-all for anything to do with the written word, or is it the fault of education of the users?

Austin's comment seems to intimate that it's the designer's fault for putting extra features in. While there's not much to be said for featuritis where it usurps usability, she seems to be intimating that the designers' rationale for including features was "I can do this, so I'm going to do it", where the onus is as much on the user to exercise self restraint.

Microsoft’s presentation software, PowerPoint, suffers similar faults. "You can put fake Post-it notes on documents, and write messages on them as if they were real, which I love," Austin said. "But then there is additional functionality that allows you to turn them upside down, reverse them, or give them a shadow. Why would anybody want to do these things to a fake Post-it note?"

The above quote is just disingenuous: the functionality in PowerPoint is to turn upside down and/or add drop shadows to any object on the slide, not just to fake Post-it notes. I can't, at first thought, think of much to do about this particular complaint. Is the interface supposed to hide the "rotate by 180 degrees" and "add drop shadow" commands when a fake Post-it note is selected? What right does software have to impose that kind of decision upon me? Aren't I in charge? What if, god forbid, I actually wanted to have an upside-down drop-shadowed Post-it note? I can easily foresee circumstances in which I might want to rotate or add drop shadows to other objects, and yet the implication is that only crazy people would perform those actions to Post-it notes. For that matter, last time I went driving, I'm pretty sure that the handbrake was just sitting there, while I was speeding down the motorway and if I just pulled on it, I'm sure the consequences would've been interesting to say the least. Why would anybody want to do anything as dangerous as pull on a handbrake whilst doing seventy?

There's more, of course:

"Women have a greater sensitivity to what a product is going to do for them, in contrast to the male angle, which is all about technological bells and whistles," [head of design for Motorola in Chicago] Parsey said. Yet some of his jargon makes you wonder whether lessons are being learnt. He talks about how the designers "focus on experience zones", and how they see mothers as being "in the moto-life space", "moto-life" being the experience of looking after your life, community and relationships.

Fine, yes, we'll cut past the jargon. But what Parsey appears to be saying is that the--excuse me while I gag--"moto-life" space involves communicating with your friends and family in an unobtrusive way: someone in the "moto-life" space doesn't want to mess about with GPRS settings to send a picture message, they just want it to work. Configuring the device isn't what's interesting to these users, it's the fact that the device aids in communication--all the configuration should be happening automagically.

The article then goes on to discuss Palm's Zire, its new entry-level consumer organiser:

“Within a month, you could use it as well as anyone who has been using it for a year,” said Rich Gioscia, Palm’s director of design management. A month? Try telling a mother with three children under five that it will take her a month to familiarise herself with a new piece of kit. The industry might be heading in the right direction, but it has quite a way to go yet.

I have to wodner if Gioscia said anything else, because it seems to me that he's implying that within a month, you could use a Zire as well as anyone who has been using it for a year, not to familiarise yourself with it, and I'm pretty happy with Palm's useability as it stands: all of my friends who've played with any Palm organiser I've had in the past have been able to pick it up within less than fifteen minutes.

The main problem I have with this article is neatly summed up in its last paragraph:

What do women want? They want technology that solves problems, that has been thought through with real people and the real world in mind, that is so intuitive you do not need the manual, and — as we are being really fussy — is stylish enough to be desirable, but robust enough to survive an encounter with baby formula. Is this too much to ask? Not necessarily. “You don’t need a manual for your electric kettle,” Motorola’s Parsey said. “Why would you think a mobile phone is more complicated?” If he can deliver that, women will beat a path to his door.

Now, I don't know about you, but I want technology that solves problems and has been thought through with real people and is so intuitive I don't need to read the manual, and the last time I checked, I wasn't menstruating once a month. I wouldn't mind about stylish hardware, either, but I don't seem to be doing too badly on that front.

The comparison with the kettle, though, is somewhat of a false one. A kettle does one thing: it heats up water until it boils, and then it stops. Either you have an electrical kettle, where there's a "heat up water until it boils, and then stop" button, or you have one you stick on a stove, in which case the procedure is somewhat more complicated, but still understandable for the general population. A modern mobile phone, on the other hand, does a myriad of things: it takes pictures, it has a calendar, you can set alarms and timers, you can call people, send them messages, send them pictures, play games, put new games on it--and this list isn't even exhaustive, and this is why a mobile phone is complicated for end users: the interface will take work, and we're not even halfway there yet.

Compare the situation with cars--automatic ones in this case, just to make it easier. You've got a "go" pedal and a "stop" pedal. You've got a round thing that tells the car what direction to go in, and like the pedals, the more you move it, the more the car responds. There's a few sticks lying about, one of which will let you put the car in "go" and "stop" mode, maybe another one for "lights on" and "lights off", and another one for "turning left" and "turning right" (though from my experience, I'm starting to believe that the last has been removed from recent cars). That's pretty much it. Anything else, though, and you may as well be staring at a mobile phone: want to program your radio? It's a safe bet that switching to the right frequency and then holding down a numbered button will do the trick, but failing that, what else are you going to try?

The main charge of the Sunday Times' article was that "technology is designed with men in mind" and that women "need more than flashy features", which is a somewhat simplistic way of looking at things. The problem here is in equating "features" with unintuitive interfaces, and it's one that the writer has deftly sidestepped, if not completely ignored, in favour of a more sensationalist and divisive headline, and we get soundbites such as this:

Men, on the other hand, tend to be extremely proud of how complex things are. "If you show your mobile phone to people in the pub, men will grab it and spend hours looking at every feature," said Perdita Patterson, who edited What Mobile magazine for five years. "Women will say: 'That’s interesting. Can we talk about something else?'"

Only that's not really the whole story, is it? I can imagine men being quite happy to show off the fact that their latest toy is much smaller than anyone else's, can take pictures and do umpteen other things, but this doesn't stop me from getting instant messages from Tom moaning about how for the life of him he can't figure out how to send pictures from his new phone by email. I can't, either, and my friends seem to think I'd be pretty knowledgeable about this kind of stuff. I'm buggered if I'm going to look at the manual, because as far as I'm concerned, it's supposed to just work. The conversation in the pub is then more accurately: "Look at this cool new toy I've got", followed by murmurs of agreement and then a final pronouncement of "I've got no idea how to use the bloody thing, though".

So let's hear it again: the features something has doesn't have much to do with its interface or its usability, and this doesn't have anything to do with "programming", either, but the article would have you think otherwise:

Programming was traditionally a man’s job. "Men didn’t want to know about interface design," said Swan, who, 10 years ago, worked for a small technology firm in America and was the only woman in the company. "They wanted to write code. Writing code was really cool. Thinking about the worker who would use it was incredibly boring. They called it 'soft'. It made them feel ill."

There's a reason why there's such a position as a usability engineer. There's a reason why there's an academic field called human computer interaction: it's not programming. It's got more or less nothing to do with it, programming's the black box and the interface is the bit that you, dear user, will be playing with. Of course programmers shouldn't be messing about with it, and you know what? It's not soft, either, it's hard. The Sunday Times' article very nearly raises legitimate points, but completely fails to spot them, instead making the specious argument that men don't require intuitive user interfaces when it's plainly obvious that they do.

Further reading:

Update 13 July 16:08: via makeoutcity, Don Park has a summary of a gender/UI design debate.

2 comments and trackbacks

Infovore Jul 14, 2003 7:40 AM
Dan raises some interesting points in his criticism of an article in the Sunday Times' Doors section this weekend, which essentially described the problems women find in their interactions with computers. I think the really interesting point he touched...
Read more in Simplicity and Complexity in Software Design »

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